Biomass refers to biological organisms, including plants, that synthesize organic matter utilizing solar energy and animals that use these plants as food. Biomass also includes resources that can be converted into chemical energy. To achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, substantial efforts have been made worldwide to develop biorefinery technology that can replace fossil fuels with biofuels. However, the conventional biofuel production process involves the use of highly toxic solvents, which are mainly derived from petroleum causing environmental and economic concerns.  Read More 

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